Water purifier program development and design
Water purifiers are also called water purifiers. The function of the water purifier is to filter the floating objects in the water to remove heavy metals, bacteria, viruses, etc., so as to ensure that the water is safe. The early water purifiers were invented by the United Kingdom, and they were just large-scale public health water purification systems used by the government. With the advancement of science and technology, water purifiers became more and more compact and began to be used in households.
As a water purifier that meets people's drinking water requirements in the new era, household water purifiers are directly related to the performance and safety of household water purifiers. The improvement of water purifiers can effectively promote drinking water. At the same time, the development of water heater enterprises can provide a certain degree of safety for people’s drinking water health. In view of the current high requirements for drinking water quality and safety of the Chinese people, we can find that the future development of household drinking water still has a fairly good prospect of.
1. Classification of water purifier technology principles
There are many types of water purifiers, mainly including direct drinking fountains, water purifiers, water softeners, kitchen water purifiers, R0 machines, electrolysis water purifiers, pipeline drinking fountains, faucet water purifiers, DIY water purifiers, double Cylinder double-clean ultrafiltration machine, kitchen drinking water purifier. Divided into 10 categories according to water quality treatment methods.
1. Softening method refers to removing or reducing the hardness of water (mainly calcium and magnesium ions in water) to a certain extent. In the process of water softening, it only softens the water quality, but cannot improve the water quality.
2. Distillation method refers to boiling water, then collecting steam, cooling and condensing it into liquid. Distilled water is extremely safe drinking water, but there are some issues that need to be further explored. Since distilled water does not contain minerals, this has become a reason for opponents to argue that human life is prone to aging. In addition, distillation is expensive, consumes energy, and cannot remove volatile substances in water.
3. Boiling method refers to drinking tap water after boiling. This is an ancient method and is widely used in China. Boiled water can kill bacteria, but some chemicals and heavy metals cannot be removed. Even if its content is extremely low, it is still unsafe to drink.
4. The magnetization method refers to the use of magnetic field effect to treat water, which is called water magnetization treatment. The magnetization process is the process of completing the magnetization process after the water passes through the magnet in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic force line. The magnetization of water in China is still in the preliminary stage of practice and research.
5. Mineralization method refers to adding mineral elements beneficial to the human body (such as calcium, zinc, strontium, etc.) into the water on the basis of purification. Commercial water purifiers generally achieve the purpose of mineralization by adding medical stone to the water purifier.
6. Ozone and ultraviolet bactericidal methods can only sterilize in these aspects, and can not remove heavy metals and chemical substances in the water. The dead bacteria remain in the water and become pyrogens.
7. Activated carbon adsorption method. It can be divided into the following three forms: 1. Granular activated carbon is more commonly used. It is made of carbonaceous substances such as essence, coal, and fruit shell (core) through chemical or physical activation. It has a lot of micropores and specific surface area, so it has a strong adsorption capacity and can effectively adsorb organic pollutants in water. In addition, during the activation process, some oxygen-containing functional groups are formed on the non-crystalline parts of the activated carbon surface. These groups make the activated carbon have chemical adsorption and catalytic oxidation and reduction properties, and can effectively remove some metal ions in the water. 2. Silver-infiltrated activated carbon combines activated carbon and silver, which not only adsorbs organic pollutants in the water, but also has a sterilization effect, and bacteria will not grow in the activated carbon, which solves the problem of nitrite content in the effluent of the water purifier. The problem of high water purifier volume. When the water passes through the silver-infiltrated activated carbon, the silver ions will be slowly released to play a role in disinfection and sterilization. Because activated carbon has a good effect on removing water color, bromine, chlorine, iron, arsenic, mercury, cyanide, phenol, etc., the sterilization effect is more than 90%, so it is used in small water purifiers. 3. Fibrous activated carbon A new type of adsorption material formed by organic carbon fiber after activation treatment has a developed microporous structure, a huge specific surface area, and numerous functional groups. Foreign countries have made remarkable achievements in solvent recovery and gas purification using fiber activated carbon; a lot of research work has also been done in water treatment applications.
8. R0 reverse osmosis membrane method. R0 reverse osmosis is a method of filtering raw water (physical method) through the internationally popular reverse osmosis and other methods, without adding any compounds to produce pure water machines (also called terminal water purification equipment) that can be directly consumed by humans. . Pressure is applied to make it pass through an RO (Reverse Osmosis, English Revers e Osmosi s) membrane with a pore size of one ten-thousandth of a micron, and finally the water is adjusted by silver-loaded activated carbon (also known as small T33) made of nut shell (coconut shell) The acidity and alkalinity (make the pure water taste sweet and mellow) to produce pure water. Reverse osmosis technology: The original text of reverse osmosis is REVERSE OSMO-SIS, which is a collection of scientists from the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with government support, spent billions of dollars, after years of research. The principle of reverse osmosis is to apply a pressure greater than the natural osmotic pressure on the raw water side to reverse osmosis water molecules from the higher concentration side to the lower concentration side. Since the pore size is much smaller than hundreds or even thousands of times that of case viruses and bacteria, all kinds of viruses, bacteria, heavy metals, solid soluble matter, polluting organic matter, calcium and magnesium ions, etc. cannot pass through the reverse osmosis membrane at all, so as to achieve Purpose of water softening and purification.
9. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration methods. The microfiltration method is a microporous filter membrane made of cellulose or polymer materials, which uses its uniform pore size to trap particles, bacteria, colloids, etc. in the water, so that they can be removed without passing through the filter membrane. This kind of microporous membrane filtration technology, also known as granular dense filtration technology, can filter micron or nanometer particles and bacteria. Both ultrafiltration and microfiltration belong to membrane separation technology. There is no obvious boundary between the two. The working pressure of ultrafiltration is generally about 0.3 MPa, which can remove macromolecular substances, bacteria, viruses, etc. in water, but the flux Lower.
10. Compound method. When it is difficult to remove harmful substances in water by one process, two or more processes are combined. Such as activated carbon adsorption, ultraviolet sterilization, activated carbon adsorption reverse osmosis, activated carbon adsorption microfiltration (ultrafiltration), polypropylene ultrafine fiber, activated carbon, microfiltration (ultrafiltration), etc. In composite water purifiers, membrane technology composite water purifiers The water purification performance is excellent, especially in the removal of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, etc.). Some of the high-quality water purifiers can be directly drunk. They have been welcomed by consumers and have become water purifiers. Hot spots of development.
2. The key technology of household water purifier solution
The technical core of the water purifier is the filter membrane in the filter element device. At present, the main technology comes from three types: ultrafiltration membrane, RO reverse osmosis membrane, and nanofiltration membrane. The research and development of household water purifiers began in the 1960s. The current research on household drinking water purifiers is mainly to remove organic and inorganic pollutants and bacteria. According to its design specifications, household water purifiers mainly use urban tap water as the source of treatment water, but in some areas of the country, especially in northern cities, urban groundwater is also used as the source of treatment water. But from a technical point of view, the products produced by current household water purification companies basically use urban tap water as a source of water treatment, and use this to determine the direction of research and development of key product technologies. Its key water purification technologies are mainly developed around the following aspects:
In accordance with the requirements of national applicable standards, manufacturers mainly comply with two document standards, namely GB5749-2006 "Sanitary Standards for Drinking Water" and "Standards for Hygienic Safety and Functional Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality Processors". Some other technical standards for household water purifiers are being formulated. At present, the safety specification documents of the Ministry of Health that really play a role in supervision and regulation of the industry. All water purification companies manufacture in accordance with this standard, comply with safety standards and obtain sanitation The approved products are qualified products and are allowed to go on the market.
The key technologies of water purification products produced within the scope permitted by applicable water sources and sanitation regulations are mainly developed around three aspects, namely:
1. General water treatment technology.
Including mechanical filtration, adsorption, disinfection, softening, electrolysis, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis precision filtration, etc.
2. Combined water purification technology.
The combined water purification technology formed for different water quality treatment purposes includes: water quality adjustment, purification treatment, purification treatment, quality separation purification, water softening, etc., and multiple technologies are integrated according to different purposes.
3. Multiple water purification function configuration technology.
The multi-functional configuration technology with water purification as the core includes: hot and cold direct drinking machine, pipelineless drinking machine, drinking fountain, water boiler, etc. Among them, the development of direct drinking machines is relatively rapid, but in terms of the convenience of use, the direct drinking machine needs to be installed with pipelines, which has become a bottleneck restricting its development. The function of the straight drinking machine was eliminated, but the installation process was eliminated, and obvious sales performance was achieved after being introduced to the market.
Third, the development trend of key technologies of water purifiers
1. Reverse osmosis technology will become the mainstream water purification technology, and its technological development trends are as follows.
1) Ultra-low voltage technology will be a safe and efficient technology development direction. At present, traditional reverse osmosis products need to be equipped with pressure tanks when they are in use, which tend to become bacteria breeding points during use. If the ultra-low pressure technology is widely realized, the pressure tank will be eliminated, the direct drinking of RO membrane effluent will be realized, and the possible secondary pollution links will be removed. However, the current ultra-low pressure technology is also in continuous development throughout the world. Some ultra-low pressure technologies of domestic membrane companies are still in an unstable state and the technology is immature. And some large foreign membrane companies are also developing ultra-low pressure membrane technology. Therefore, this is a promising development direction of reverse osmosis technology.
2) The anti-pollution membrane is the key to technological improvement and lower user cost. At present, the anti-pollution ability of reverse osmosis membranes on the market is still lacking, especially in northern areas where the water quality is high and the damage to the membrane is greater. The RO membrane designed by the company has a service life of 3 to 5 years, but the actual application period is 1 to 2 years. This also invisibly increases the user's use cost, so the anti-pollution RO membrane is one of the future research and development directions of enterprises.
3) Carbon nanotube technology is a new type of deionization technology. It is a new technology successfully developed by Stanford University in the United States. This technology can effectively replace the current reverse osmosis technology. It not only has low-cost characteristics, but also The ions can also retain trace elements that are beneficial to the human body in the water, which may be widely used in the field of household water purification.
2. Fashionable and exquisite water quality regulation technology products will gradually become popular.
At present, the domestic domestic water treatment industry is still in the preliminary stage. With the promulgation of the new national standard for drinking water, water plants in all parts of the country, especially in large and medium-sized cities, are undergoing renovation. This means that in the near future, urban water supply will basically require Implement in strict accordance with national standards. For water purification products, there have been many adjustments in the research, development and promotion of bacteria removal and heavy metal pollution. The technological development trends are as follows:
1) Simple function and classified use (faucet, kettle, desktop type); foreign water purification products are obviously different from domestic ones. For example, in Europe, especially Germany, they basically use water purification kettles, Philips faucet water purifiers, and Panasonic The desktop small water purifiers produced by Mitsubishi are also very popular. The reason why these products are highly popular is because the quality of tap water can basically reach the standard for raw drinking, so the functional needs of users for water purification products are completely different from those in China. Today in the European and American water purification market is the tomorrow of my country's water purification industry.
2) Table drinking device combined with cold and hot functions; this type of product is currently very popular in Korea and Taiwan. This type of product has the dual functions of purification and cold and heat. In Europe, this type of product is more sophisticated and mini, and can be drunk directly on the table.
3) Portable travel water purification equipment. Fast and convenient portable small water purifiers will have an increasingly broad market.
4) Continuous improvement of filter material quality technology. The new water purifier will use more high-quality activated carbon, multi-functional ion exchange resin and ultra-low pressure precision ultrafiltration membrane.
3. Household central water purification will have more market opportunities, mainly for two categories of products.
1) High-throughput household water purification technology based on ultrafiltration technology. This type of technology is applicable to the southern region, just like the household central air conditioners used today. Although this type of product has a small market share at present, it is also a development trend in the future.
2) Ion exchange and ultrafiltration technology as the core softening and quality water purification technology. This type of technology is currently widely used in the United States or countries and regions with high water hardness, and it is also very applicable in northern my country and limestone regions.
4. The integration of kitchen appliances may be the next step in water purifier technology upgrade.
1) With the development of kitchen appliances to integration, household water purification products will be more and more integrated with kitchen appliances in the future, especially in the cabinet embedded water purification device. Samples of related products for sale have already appeared at the Shanghai Home Appliance Expo in 2012.
2) The purified direct drinking machine with hot and cold drinking function will begin to adopt cabinet embedded design, including waterway and control circuit, and the faucet will be integrated design, which is also a new development model.
5. Electrolytic water purification will have a better market prospect.
Electrolysis water purifier is a product that is currently controversial in China, but the product has been widely used in Japan, South Korea, and the United States. This is also one of the development trends that domestic water purification companies can learn from and refer to in the next development.
1) The sophisticated and highly intelligent household electrolyzed water device that is effectively combined with ultrafiltration technology will become a healthy choice.
2) The electrolyzer and ion exchange membrane used in the domestic production of electrolytic water purifier products are assembled with imported components. High-quality electrolyzer and ion exchange membrane will become an important guarantee for the quality of the whole machine.
Four, water purifier filter element replacement cycle recommendations
The frequency and time of replacement of different filter elements are different, so you must first find out what filter element the water purifier you bought belongs to, and you can also refer to the manufacturer's recommended replacement time of the filter element in the manual.
1. PPC composite filter element
The PPC composite filter element is generally recommended to be replaced for about 3-6 months. The specific need to be determined according to the water quality of the user’s home. The maximum time is no more than 1 year. Generally, the replacement is based on the prompts on the water purifier machine. The PPC composite filter element on the water purifier has a red dripping prompt, indicating that the PPC filter element of the water purifier needs to be replaced. Generally, it is divided into two filter elements of level 1 and level 2. It needs to be replaced every six months.
2. CPP composite filter element
The CPP composite filter element is generally used for about 6 months and needs to be replaced once. The general use time will be slightly longer than the PPC composite filter element, but it will not be too long. It is recommended to replace it according to the prompts on the water purifier machine. , If it is prompted to replace, then replace it in time!
3. RO membrane filter element
The RO membrane filter element is the last three-stage filter element. This filter element can filter small substances. Generally, the use time is longer, probably about 2-3 years. The specific replacement time needs to be determined according to the frequency of use and water quality. When used as a water purifier The RO filter lamp on the machine is already red, prompting to replace it, and then replace it. ,
4. The following is the filter replacement cycle shared by netizens based on their own experience.
Point of view 1: Normally change in 3-6 months. If it is a ceramic filter, use a planer to plan a layer in time, and you can continue to use it.
Viewpoint 2: Just unscrew this kind of thing and change it by myself. I change it all by myself. 3M is a composite filter element, which is costly. Not as good as a multi-stage filter. The first two grades of my house are equipped with pp cotton so that they can be replaced at the same time in one year. The next few levels don't need to be changed for 3-5 years. In fact, the amount of water reduced and then changed.
Viewpoint 3: It takes 6 months to replace PP cotton, which is actually the cheapest one, more than 10 yuan. The expensive filter element can be used for many years. But some brands integrate them all together, forcing you to replace them at the same time. As long as the kitchen has room for accommodation, the use of multi-stage filter elements is the best and lowest cost method.
V. Summary of household water purifier solutions
After nearly 20 years of development in the domestic household water purification industry, household water purification technology has been greatly developed, especially the supporting of various parts and components has been gradually established in China, but the development of core technology still has a large development space. For example, the comprehensive performance of domestic activated carbon is unstable; the ultrafiltration technology is uneven, and it is relatively backward in hydrophilicity and consistency; the core technology of RO membrane is lacking, and the research and development capabilities of ultra-low pressure technology are weak; other aspects such as carbon nanotubes, electrolytic reduction, etc. The research has not yet started, and all this will depend on the continuous efforts of the majority of household water purification product manufacturers.
The country has incorporated drinking water safety technology into the development plan for the 12th Five-Year Plan, and it is expected that relevant national scientific research institutes and powerful water purification companies will increase their research on core water purification technologies and focus and invest in industrialization. The healthy development of the industry provides a strong guarantee.